Zazzau

Zazzau, suna ne da ya samo asali daga sunan takobi wanda kuma daga baya ya koma sunan wata babbar masarauta mai daɗaɗɗen tarihi daga cikin masarautun Arewancin Najeriya. Ɗalhatu (2002), ya kawo cewa, duk wanda ke riƙe da wannan takobi to shi ne sarki, sannan kuma suna kiransa da sunan ‘Maɗau Zazzau’, ma’ana, wanda ke ɗauke da Zazzau. Ya zo a Bryant (shekarar bugu ta goge), cewa, shi wannan takobi mai suna Zazzau, abu ne da jama’ar wasu yankuna na masarautar Zazzau ɗin ke girmamawa, rantsuwa ma idan za su yi da shi suke yi.

Wannan masarauta na ɗaya daga cikin manyan masarautun ƙasar Hausa (Arnett, 1920). Ɗalhatu (2012) ya faɗi cewa bincike ya nuna cewa akwai mutane a wannan yankin na masarautar Zazzau tun lokacin da ake kira ‘Stone Age’ a Turance. Shi kuwa wannan lokacin na ‘Stone Age’, lokaci ne da mutane suka riƙa amfani da duwatsu wajen sana’anta makamai da sauran kayan aiki, kamar irinsu kibiyar harbi, wuƙar yanka, dutsen markaɗa ko niƙa kayan abinci, da sauransu. Wannan lokacin, lokaci ne mai nisan gaske. A sassan Turai akwai ƙasashen da suke dangana shi da shekaru miliyan biyu da rabi baya (2.5 Million B.C.), wato shekaru miliyan biyu da rabi kafin aiko Annabi Isa. Sannan kuma ƙarƙarshensa shi ne shekaru dubu biyar baya (5000 B.C.) a wasu sassan na duniya, duba (Schick da Nicholas, 2008). To amma Susan da Roderick (1981), sun tabbatar da faruwar wannan fasaha a sashen Africa ta yamma da kuma suka ambato ƙasar Mali a ciki. Sai dai su a nasu binciken sun nuna farkon wannan fasaha a Afrika ta Yamma shi ne shekaru dubu goma sha biyu (12,000 B.C.) har zuwa shekaru dubu ɗaya (1000 B.C.).

Saboda haka idan muka ɗauka cewa jama’a sun zauna a wannan yankin tun a wancan lokacin wanda bisa binciken wasu masana kimiyyar ƙasar Amurka wato Susan da Roderick (1981), abin ya yi daidai. Musamman tunda sun ambata sunan Mali a cikin ƙasashen da suka ambata, to akwai yiwuwar faruwar hakan. Saboda ai ko sarkin Zazzau na farko a jerin sarakunan Fulani, wato Malam Musa Bamalli, tushensa ƙasar Mali ɗin ne. saboda haka akwai daɗaɗɗiyar dangantaka tsakani ƙasar Mali da wannan yankin na ƙasar Hausa.

A wannan lokacin da ake magana a kai, ƙauyukan da suke wannan kewaye sun haɗa da Madarkaci, Kufena, da kuma Tukur-Tukur (Ɗalhatu, 2002; Bryant, shekarar bugun ta yage; Arnett, 1920). Kuma dukkan waɗannan yankuna a gindin duwatsu suke. Jama’ar da ke zaune a waɗannan yankuna kuma a wannan lokaci mai tsawo a baya, basu da wani shugaba guda ɗaya. Sai dai kowane gida suna da shugaban gidan wanda shi ne babba a gidan. Abin da ke haɗa su waje guda shi ne wancan takobi da suke girmamawa (Bryant, shekarar bugu ta yage).

Bunƙasar Zazzau

Waɗannan yankuna da aka ambata a sama, suna da duwatsu da suka kewaye su, su kuma waɗannan duwatsu suna da albarkatun tama da ƙarafa.

 

Dutsen Madarkaci

 

Dutsen Kufena

 

Dutsen Tukur-Tukur

Sannan kuma dai akwai wadataccen dajin farauta a wannan kewaye. Saboda waɗannan dalilai dama wasu, sai ya zama a ƙarshe-ƙarshen lokacin tama-da-ƙarafa (Ɗalhatu, 2002); lokacin da Bature ya kira ‘Iron Age’ wanda shi kuma lokaci ne da aka daina amfani da duwatsu wajen ƙera makamai da kayan aiki aka koma amfani da tama da ƙarafa. Wannan lokaci ana hararen/hasashen/kirdadon kusan shekaru dubu ɗaya (1000 B.C.), har zuwa shekaru ɗari uku (300 A.D) kamar yadda shafin Wikipedia ( 2016), ya wallafa.

Ita ma wannan magana ta (Ɗalhatu, 2002), abar tabbatarwa ce, saboda samuwar rubuce-rubuce da dama da ke bayyana samuwar wasu ɓaraguzan fasahar gina gumaka da aka yi a wasu sassa na jahar ta Kaduna a yanzu, da kuma kamanceceniyar al’adar mutananen wannan yanki na yanzu da na wancan zamanin, (The Met, 2000; Wikipedia, 2016; Ross, 2002).

Saboda waɗancan dalilai na samuwar sinadarin tama-da-ƙarafa, dajin farauta da kuma ƙasar noma a waɗancan yankuna sai ya zama jama’a masu mabambantan sana’o’i suna kwararowa daga sassan duniya zuwa wannan yanki dan gudanar da sana’o’insu. Samun haɗuwar waɗannan jama’a a waje guda shi ya haifar da samun shugaba guda ɗaya da suka kira ‘Maigari’. Wannan kuma ya faru ne a ƙarshen ƙarni na farko kamar yadda ya zo a Ɗalhatu (2002).

Yankin Kufena wanda shi ya fi ƙarfin tattalin arziƙi saboda yafi faɗi, yawan jama’a, girman dutse da kuma dajin noma. Saboda haka sai ya fi jan hankalin jama’a. a wannan yanki akwai ƙabilu kamar irinsu Bagwi (Gwari), Kurama, Kadara da Kuje. Su suka fi yawa a wancan lokacin.

Saboda wannan dalili sai mulkin Kufena ya fara naso zuwa sauran sassan kamar irin su Tukur-Tukur, Fadamar Bono (Yanzu ta koma Babban Dodo), da kuma Madarkachi. A wannan lokaci wani mutum mai suna Danzau shi ke riƙe da shugabancin garin Kufena.

 

Dutsen Kufena daga Dutsen Tukur-Tukur

 

Dutsen Madarkachi daga Dutsen Tukur-Tukur

Sarautar Farko, Ɗalhatu (2002), ya ce, sarkin farko na wannan yankin shi ne Sarki Gunguma, wanda shi kuma ɗa ne ga Sarki Bawo na Daura. Wannan kuma ta faru ne sakamakon wasu mahara daga yankin Gurara da suka farmaki wannan yanki na ƙasar Zazzau da yaƙi. Da tura ta kai bango ba mafita, sai waɗannan jama’a suka nemi tallafin sarki Daura, wato Sarki Bawo da ya taimaka musu. Da jin haka shi kuma sarki Bawo sai ya haɗa runduna ya tura su a ƙarƙashin ɗansa mai suna Gunguma. Da Gunguma ya je shi da jarumansa sai suka fatattaki waɗannan maharan.

Amma a ra’ayin Bryant (Shekarar bugu ta yage), ya zo cewa su jama’ar yankin ne suka ga cewa yawansu ya kai su samu shugaba guda ɗaya, saboda haka sai suka zaɓi shi Gunguma ya zama shugabansu. Idan muka duba dukkan waɗannan ra’ayuyyuka biyun, za mu ga cewa sun haɗu a kan cewa shi Sarki Gunguma shi ne sarkin farko da ya fara zama Sarkin Zazzau wato ‘Maɗau Zazzu’.

Manazarta:

 

Arnette E.J. (1920). Gazetteer of Northern Provinces of Nigeria. Gazetteer of Zaria Province. Waterlow & Sons Limited. London, Dunstable & Waterford.

Bryant K.J. (shekarar bugu ta yage). Jos, Kaduna, Kano, Zazzau, a Guide Book. Gaskiya Corporation Zaria-Nigeria.

Dalhatu U. (2002). Malam Ja’afaru Dan Isyaku, The Great Emir of Zazzau. Woodpecker Communication Limited. Zaria-Nigeria.

Northern Nigeria Ministry of Information (1963). Facts About Northern Nigeria. Gaskiya Corporation, Zaria-Nigeria.

Northern Nigeria Ministry of Information (1965). The Fascinating Provinces of Northern Nigeria. Gaskiya Corporation, Zaria-Nigeria.

 

by rumbunilimi. con. ng

Ross E.G. (2002). The Age of Iron in West Africa. Department of Arts of Africa, Oceania, and the Americas, The Metropolitan Museum of Art. An ciro a shekarar (2016), daga shafin http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/iron/hd_iron.htm

Susan K. M. da Roderick J. M. (1981). West African Prehistory: Archaeological studies in recent decades have illuminated the prehistory of this vast region, revealing unexpected complexity in its development from 10,000 B.C. to A.D. 1000. An ciro a shekarar (2016), daga shafin: https://www.jstor.org

The Met (2000). Nok Terracottas (500 B.C.–200 A.D.). An ciro a shekarar 2016, daga shafin http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/nok/hd_nok.htm

Wikipedia (2016). Nok Culture. An ciro daga shafin: https ://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nok_culture

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